Isra H. Ali*, Islam A. Khalil, Ibrahim M. El-Sherbiny
Association of Egyptian-American Scholars
Skin is the soft tissue that protects the internal human body tissues against external injuries and traumas. Skin has the capability of self-restoration naturally after wounds or burns, however, a scaffolding material is mandatory in order to help in well organizing the newly regenerated tissues while their restoration especially in complicated diabetic injuries and burns. The aim of this study is to develop a nanofibrous topical patch of chitosan/polyethylene oxide loaded with the required dose of Phenytoin to be applied as a wound dressing by the patient. These matrices would deliver the required dose in a controlled manner to heal the injury. Besides, the matrix would mimic the natural tissues of skin in order to help in well restoration and organization of the regenerated cells.
Phenytoin, a water insoluble drug, was loaded within polymeric nanocarriers to facilitate its dispersibility among the aqueous solution of chitosan/polyethylene oxide. Unloaded and Phenytoin loaded nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning technique.
Scanning electron microscope showed that highly nanoporous chitosan/polyethylene oxide nanofibers scaffolds were successfully obtained. Image J software analysis detected that the nanofibers diameter did not exceed 150 nm. Physicochemical characterization revealed that the various fabricated nanofibrous dressings showed maximum swellability after 3 hours where their weight increased around 150-200%. In addition, biodegedability test showed that all of the produced nanofibers are highly biodegradable as more than 80% of their weight was lost after only 7 days. Nanofibers incorporating lecithin coated phenytoin nanocarriers showed higher swellability and biodegradability than other uncoated counterparts. This is returned back to the presence of the hydrophilic lecithin within the structure matrices of nanofibers that enhanced nanofibers properties. In vitro drug release profile of Phenytoin showed that the produced nanofibers acted as sustained release systems for an extended period exceeding 9. days. Cytotoxicity assays proved that the fabricated nanofibers possessed high cell viability and proliferation rate using fibroblast cell line. Finally, the in vivo studies using a mice model proved the high ability of the developed phenytoin loaded dressings to completely heal the wounds in around 10 days only. In addition, besides healing the wound rapidly, the dressings stimulated high rate epithelization and granulation, while minimized necrosis and inflammation incidence.
Presence of lecithin enhances wound treatment due to its natural capability to heal wounds in addition to enhancing phenytoin release from the matrix of the nanofiberous dressing. This is attributed to the high hydrophilicity of lecithin. The optimized nanofiberous dressings are considered convenient scaffolding material and drug delivery system to enhance the wound healing and regeneration of lost tissues due to injuries or wounds.